(A) the rubber industry is traditionally an important industry in the world
The so-called rubber industries, primarily at the international level refers to the rubber and other elastomers materials mixed with carbon black kind of reinforcement under, and add various kinds of functional additives, combined with fiber, metal, and other materials as supporting framework, produced by molding and vulcanization of rubber products industries. To distinguish it from the rubber industry as a raw material of natural rubber and synthetic rubber industry in recent years and call it the rubber processing industry, are known as rubber products industries in the economy, trade and industry.
The development of rubber industry in the world after more than 160 years, has now become an important tradition in many developed countries the industry, now the global rubber consumption of more than 17 million tons a year, about 100,000 species of all kinds of rubber products in all fields of human society. In the rubber industry in the second cluster, with elastomer materials unique in the industry. The last twenty or thirty years, rubber industry because of the influence of world oil crisis in the 1970 of the 20th century, twice, global rubber industry have experienced a long-term dependence of expansion as a major means to increase economic efficiency, gradually converted to improve quality, increase varieties and reduce the production cost of the new era.
Traditional rubber products gross excess, facing the current world market situation of dwindling competition and Enterprise benefit. Experts believe that with the rapid development of the global high-tech, thorough reorganization and transformation of the traditional rubber industry and reform has become an inevitable trend. The only way out is to accelerate industrial upgrading, advance product replacement, the rubber industry new technology as soon as possible.
(B) the present situation of the development of the rubber industry in the world and features
At present, the world rubber industry sales of more than $ 250 billion, rubber products has become an important international trade of commodities. In the world market, rubber products and has formed a tire as the Center, with a focus on industrial and construction supplies, involving rubber boots, plastic sheets and other household products, as well as health, culture, sports and other major product groups. Modern rubber industry formed the following six characteristics:
1, rubber industry is inclusive of many categories of industries. World rubber consumption in the rubber of the rubber industry consumes 80% over the world. With its production of rubber materials and products reached more than 35 million tonnes of the total, may be summarized into tyres, tubes, belts, plates and a variety of extrusions, plastic pieces, glue and rubber boots, plasters and more than more than 10 categories. They related to the national economy and people's lives, as well as aspects of defense industry, cutting-edge high-tech, widely used for shock absorption, sealing, adhesion, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, insulation, electric fields, mostly fiber, metal, plastic and rubber firm consisting of rubber compound. Throughout the rubber from the adhesive quantity in order to tire the largest, accounted for more than 50%, industry, health, cultural and sports accounted for 30%, daily-use products represented by the rubber, accounting for about 10%. Rubber products mainly consumed in areas such as transportation, construction, industry, science and technology, of which the most dependent on traffic and construction.
Today, approximately 65% of rubber is used in the automotive industry, the type of rubber used most. A car car of with glue volume has over 100 kg, which tire for 37.8 kg; various rubber products up more than 200 over species, car coat with of rubber products now has accounted for to car Assembly this of 10% above, they big to tire, and security airbag, and fan with, and brake tube, and thermal tube, and air conditioning tube, and sealed article, small to oil seal, and o ring, and gasket, and shock absorbers, and diaphragm,, distribution Yu car of go line institutions, and engine, and body, of drive, and shock, and sealed, and dust, and air conditioning and security, all system.
Rubber materials used in construction accounted for 15%~20% of the total rubber consumption, second only to tire. In addition to the construction of all kinds of construction machinery and transport equipment, which is used in all types of structures above, used for waterproofing and sealing, seismic, acoustic, such as waterproof rubber rolls, etc. Structure joints using elastic sealant around the world with an estimated annual needs at least 500,000 tons, of which Silicon rubber series is close to half, polyurethane series around 30%. In addition, the sealing gaskets of the indoor dust, noise, ground vibration-resistant rubber cushions, in recent years also become indispensable materials of tall modern buildings, buildings in the square.
2, tire and rubber industries the most representative of the industry. The tire industry has always been a pillar industry in the rubber industry. Tire industry both technically and economically is the symbol of the rubber industry, the adhesive quantity accounted for more than 50%, and there is an upward trend. Production reached 1.1 billion of tyres in the world right now, with sales of more than $ 70 billion. Large enterprises have 80% in the rubber industry are concentrated in the tire industry.
World's top ten tyre manufacturers in recent years have been on top of the $ 1 billion in annual sales. 470 existing tire plant in the world (China has 55), located in 79 countries and territories, while United States Goodyear, France Michelin and Japan's Bridgestone has 152 factories three multinational companies, accounted for 36.6%, divided in 69 countries and regions, accounts for 54% of much of the world.
Apart from China, tire plant in the world rubber consumption of most of them in the annual output of 5 million, the size of more than 40,000 tons. World's big three outside their home countries, annual consumption of plastic at about 100,000 tons, world-class tire factory, with comprehensive display of high-tech, equipment, robots and automated demonstration line. Korea has built the world's largest tire factory.
Development feature of the tire industry in the world: one is concentrated in the top ten manufacturers, and also widened the distance between the top ten (differ by more than 10 times before and after), formed the first group (tire the big three), the second group (three multinational tire companies) and third group (four major tire companies); the other is transferred by the United States and Europe to Asia. China, Japan and Korea in the tire production has started to exceed North America.
In 2000, China's rubber consumption reached 2.1 million tons, tire production 120 million. From the adhesive quantity terms, three years in a row over Japan's 1.8 million tons, the second largest in the world; tyre production is about Japan two-thirds of 170 million, ranking third in the world. At present, the United States, and Japan and China has become the world third largest producer. The last ten years, United States remain the world's leading position in the rubber industry, 20% of rubber consumption in the world (3.5 million tonnes), tire production accounts for the world's 23% (2.5 million), driven by the information technology and other high-tech, the rubber industry is a world leader in terms of technology, economic.
3, structural changes in the industrial and daily necessities of life is accelerating. Rubber industrial tire production mainly to the increasing trend, industrial products and other rubber products, such as adhesive quantity relatively slow growth. Blend of rubber and plastic, composite and resin is being strengthened.
In industrial products, with the exception of damping rubber, rubber thread and a small number of products still mainly natural rubber outer, and many have been replaced by rubber or plastic products, most prominent in the belt, hose and tape products.
Wire and cable used to be a member of the rubber industry, but since in the 1940 of the 20th century, has been completely independent from the rubber industry and form their own system. Then also seceded to form the asbestos asbestos rubber products industries. 60, along with the rapid development of synthetic adhesives, rubber adhesives and resin formed a close relationship with each other, and gradually form the adhesives and sealants industry.
In addition, starting from the 70 's, due to rubber shoes with the interpenetration of the leather shoes, shoes and plastic shoes, a variety of sneakers, casual shoes, athletic shoes and functional footwear and many new varieties. Modern shoes have been removed the distinction between non-rubber boots rubber boots and natural boundaries. On the uppers, soles, often leather, fabrics, non-woven fabric blends, rubber, plastics, rubber, Thermoplastic Elastomer used in combination of various materials such as composites,; in terms of design, imitate each other; shrinking differences between four shoes, has been difficult to recognize from his appearance. Shoes and other footwear, and are gradually merging into a single footwear-goods industries.
World with the apparel and footwear international bulk trade between commodities, the annual output has reached more than 10 billion, with trade volume exceeding 4 billion pairs, global sales of 50 billion dollars. At present, the footwear production is concentrated in East Asia, and from Korea, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China turned to mainland China, Thailand and Indonesia and other developing countries. In 1998, reaching 6 billion pairs of footwear production in China, exported to more than 150 countries and regions, more than half of total world footwear market, earned about $ 9 billion a year as the world's biggest footwear market power. 6 billion pairs of shoes, able to distinguish what belongs to but 1.2 billion pairs of rubber shoes, Qingdao doublestar group has entered the world's biggest manufacturer of rubber boots.
4, non-non-rubber products, rubber and rubber industry ratios continue to grow. In recent years, the non-rubber for rubber industry ratios are now accounted for 20% of the total world consumption of rubber, in particular synthetic rubber more than 28% and a continued upward trend.
Plastics industry and rubber industry has now become the largest plastic industry each year as promotion material and rubber elasticity, about 800,000 tons. Among them, the 60% above are used in LaTeX form. In building construction, in order to increase the flexibility of asphalt paving, concrete, and other waterproof, used for the purpose of adhesive rubber, around 300,000 tons, of which 20% for LaTeX. In addition, paper processing, and fiber handle rubber, latex consumption topped the world, has reached 1.2 million tons and more than 180,000 tons, respectively. Use elastic rubber modified plastics, plastic weaknesses can be dramatically improved range of applications and usage continues to expand, has now become an important modification of plastics industry material. Similarly, in rubber-modified asphalt also pave the way for construction of good material. High strength paper mixed with LaTeX, but also prevent torn wrapping paper, printing paper, fine paper indispensable. LaTeX processing fibers, has a larger advantage than other bonding materials, has become the fiber industry to leave the material. In addition, rubber or electrical industry an important insulating material for high voltage wire and cable, are also the most commonly used material viscosity of the adhesive. Their consumption of plastic has reached 200,000 tonnes. In recent years, the rubber and then developed into high-tech fields such as electronic information, rocket propellant bonding material.
Rubber is no longer a single raw rubber industry. Non-rubber for rubber industry is rapidly expanding in the area, and formed a large number of non-rubber products rubber industries.
5, the new generation rubber constantly driving the technology revolution in the rubber industry. Of raw materials from a single traditional rubber rubber products used to achieve diversity. Known as second-and third-generation liquid rubber, Thermoplastic Elastomer rubber budding in the rubber industry, the rubber industry technology revolution to provide a new direction. The other hand, regarded the Crosslinking of rubber elastomer plastic, such as modification of polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl chloride, such as material becomes a rubber products an important alternative raw materials. In liquid rubber, development of polyurethane is particularly prominent. With a liquid polyurethane rubber processing eliminates the complexity of shaping and molding and curing directly linked together, greatly simplifies the rubber processing, especially in areas such as sponge, polyurethane foams to overcome the disadvantage of rubber aging, now largely replaced rubber, polyurethane-takes. Currently, world production of polyurethane over 8 million tons, around rubber consumption by half, as used in the rubber industry has accounted for around one-eighth. Performance of thermoplastic elastomers are rubber and plastic processing of new materials can be used. In recent years, its annual growth rate of rubber consumption is about 1 time per cent higher 6%~7%, rubber consumption has accounted for the entire 7%~8%. Thermoplastic elastomers mainly dominated by industrial products, widely used in hose, rubber, plastic, cloth and various profiles. It is characterized by the use of existing plastics processing equipment production, while blending with plastic, rubber free. The emergence and development of thermoplastic elastomer, rubber industry to "curing" as its characteristicFeatures are beginning to erode, and gradual integration with the plastics processing.
6, rubber, high-tech products for the rubber industry has opened up a new economic growth point. In recent years, in order to meet the needs of high-tech industrialization and the emergence of high-tech rubber materials and products, and a catalyst for the development of rubber industry new economic growth points.
Rubber high-tech materials with new properties, found in the market's not dozens. Although their adhesive quantity is still very small, but very high added value and high growth rates, have started to occupy a certain position in the industrial products, are likely to form a new industry in the future. Currently, the fastest are: electronic information, sealing, damping, Office Automation, and home appliances with high-tech rubber material. Most of these materials, rubber and plastics mixing and chemical modification of rubber composite products in various ways, most of which become the rubber in the balance of functional polymer materials.
With the rapid development of high technology, many traditional rubber products are beginning to achieve high performance and functional. Their tires, industrial products from every aspect rubber shoes and so on, are: green energy-saving intelligent tires, tyres, timing belt, belt, blast hose, and various functional footwear, there are all kinds of rubber parts for sealing, damping and mass screening, induction, and so on. Based on the use of high technology to transform the traditional rubber products, rubber products, rubber industry development opens up new avenues in the future.
(C) the 21st century world rubber industry faces major problems
1, environmental issues. Dust pollution has always been the biggest problem in the rubber industry. Especially black carbon pollution from transport, batching and mixing operators and environment suffer.
Rubber reinforcement for carbon black is currently the only the best ingredients, without reinforcement by carbon black, rubber value could be significantly reduced, even made out of rubber. Can be said that without carbon black, no rubber industry. But on the other hand, pollution caused by carbon black for rubber production, is the biggest problem threatening rubber industry. To solve this problem, many using the enclosed batching and mixing of rubber plant and seal production, preventing overflow pollution by carbon black. It makes dust problems eased, but investment in equipment and power consumption is greatly increased. Meanwhile, the huge complicate production system of rubber mixing equipment, large mixer, power up to 3000KW, turn a rubber plant plagued by noise and noise pollution problem has arisen.
In addition, during the process of mixing and vulcanization of rubber, working temperature up to 140-180. Rubber fog and smoke to escape in a hot state often enable the operator to breathing difficulties, and absorption of large amounts of harmful substances. Although many developed countries have banned toxic antiagers and vulcanizing and plastic solutions agent, such as compounding, and the rubber vulcanization process gases are monitored. But complex factors, since it is difficult to make a scientific conclusion. In recent years, with increasingly high temperature vulcanization process, and